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A Jane Austen Price List

June 03, 2017 07:11PM
Hello Dwiggies! This is my own reference list, which I've compiled for personal use and thought other people might find useful. Quotations whose source is not given should be from the novels. (Which book should be obvious, and I've tried to include chapter, but not bothered with pagination since that varies so much.) The two secondary sources I've drawn heavily on are Deirdre Le Faye's Jane Austen: The World of Her Novels and Daniel Pool's What Jane Austen Ate and Charles Dickens Knew. Feel free to contact me with questions or corrections!

A Jane Austen Price List

Note: the pound is divided into twenty shillings (s), each shilling made up of twelve pence (d), and there are thus 240 pence to the pound.

“In Jane Austen’s time there was no actual coin for a pound value until the gold sovereign was minted in July 1817, and a golden guinea (value 21 shillings) was the coin in normal use. There was also a golden half-guinea (value ten shillings and sixpence), and a golden third-guinea (value seven shillings) was briefly in circulation from 1797 to 1813. Silver coins were the shilling, sixpence, fourpence (called a groat), threepence, twopence (half-groat), penny and halfpenny…at the end of the eighteenth century the twopence, penny and halfpenny were minted in copper.” - Le Faye 129-131.

By Amount

Penny — the price of two bunches of primroses, as cried by a London hawker.

Twopence — the price of having a letter sent in London; one penny would be paid by the sender and the other by the receiver.

Threepence — the minimum charge for having a letter sent outside of London, the charge to be paid by the receiver. Three pence would take the letter up to 15 miles. A larger sum was charged for larger distances, and eight pence was the price for over 150 miles.

Fivepence — the price of a pound of Duke cherries, as cried by a London street hawker.

1 shilling — the price per horse per mile of renting a post-chaise (not including tips to the postboy and inn servants).

1 shilling — the price of admittance to the Grand Managerie in the Strand, containing “two…Kangaroos” and a “living Male Elephant.” (Le Faye, 51)

5 shillings — the price per yard of a “prodigious bargain" price for a “true Indian muslin” that Mr. Tilney purchased for his sister.

9 shillings — one of Mrs. Allen’s favorite muslin gowns is described as costing “but nine shillings a yard;” Mr. Tilney says he would have guessed that sum exactly.

Half a guinea — the amount sent by Edmund Bertram to William Price under the seal of Fanny’s letter.

18 shillings — the price of all three volumes of Mansfield Park in 1814. (It sold very well)

1 guinea — the price of Emma in 1816

1 guinea — “the weekly salary upon which a poor curate might have to keep himself and his family” (LeFaye, 106)

24 shillings — the price of Persuasion when it was first brought out in 1817, in four volumes.

5 guineas — the amount per day charged by Humphrey Repton, a famous landscape gardener.

10 pounds — the amount originally paid for the copyright to Northanger Abbey by Benjamin Crosby & Co, under the title Susan. The novel went unpublished and the copyright was purchased back 12 or 13 years later and published after Jane Austen's death.

10 guineas (which is to say, 10 pounds ten shillings) — the amount Catherine Morland’s father gives her when she sets off for Bath, promising more when it is wanted. This is done instead of “giving her an unlimited order on his banker, or even putting an hundred pounds bank-bill into her hands.”

25-40 pounds — the price of a hack horse in the 1820s (Pool, 143).

35 pounds — Mrs. La Tournelle charged about 35 pounds per year per pupil, and had charge of Cassandra and Jane Austen for some months.

40 guineas — the price at which “a friend” of Thorpe’s wants to sell a horse, specified as not a hunter.

50 guineas — (52 pounds 10 shillings) the price the notorious rattle John Thorpe claims to have paid for his “curricle-hung” gig.

60 guineas — the price a friend actually offered Thorpe for the gig the next day, horse included, on the authority of James Morland.

100 pounds — the price of a good carriage horse or hunter in the 1820s (Pool, 143).

110 pounds — the price paid by Egerton, the publisher, for the copyright of Pride and Prejudice in 1812. It was in a second edition within a few months.

140 pounds — the final profit earned by Jane Austen for Sense and Sensibility.

150 pounds — the income Mrs. Jennings projects for Edward and Lucy in S&S, when she says they will settle on a “curacy of fifty pounds a-year, with the interest of his two thousand pounds, and what little matter Mr. Steele and Mr. Pratt can give her.—Then they will have a child every year! and Lord help ‘em! how poor they will be!—I must see what I can give them towards furnishing their house. Two maids and two men indeed!—as I talked of t’other day.—No, no, they must get a stout girl of all works.—Betty’s sister would never do for them now.”

200 pounds —the annual yield of the rectory at Delaford which Col. Brandon gives to Edward Ferrars. It is worth noting the difference between a rectory, where the clergyman was in personal possession of the tithes, and a vicarage, where the vicar was paid a salary. A rector would of course have a position of higher social importance, though one so small as Delaford could convey very little consequence. We are told that the situation at Delaford could be improved and made to yield more, though not much more.

250 pounds — the amount spent by Mr Digweed at Steventon to construct “a large and more efficient threshing-mill on his Manor Farm.”

300 pounds — the average high-end price of a carved marble chimney piece, according to Le Faye (193).

300 pounds — the annual income of Edward Ferrars at the time of his taking possession of the rectory at Delaford. Col. Brandon considers that this will enable him to live like a gentleman, though in a modest fashion, but cannot conceive of marrying upon it. Here we must perhaps stress the difference between beginning a presumably expanding family on a certain sum, and the adequacy of a sum for maintaining a single gentleman.

350 pounds — the total profit earned from Mansfield Park, which was published on commission in 1814, and advertised as being by the author of Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice.

400 pounds — the income of the living Mr. Morland intends to give to James Morland so that he can marry Isabella, with a promise of “an estate of at least equal value” as his inheritance. We do not know what amount James Morland has to live on in the meanwhile, but we do know that he cannot afford to keep a horse and gig of his own, an unsurprising fact given the cost of carriages and the maintenance of horses.

500 pounds — the sum Mr. Drummond, Gen. Tilney’s father-in-law, gave his daughter to buy wedding-clothes with, along with her fortune of 20,000 pounds. (Northanger, Chapter IX)

500 pounds per annum—the income of the Dashwood ladies towards the beginning of Sense and Sensibility. We are told that they have two maids and a man and that the cottage they inhabit on “very easy terms” possesses two “sitting rooms, about sixteen feet square” (one of which would have been used as a dining room), four bedrooms, and two garrets, which were the attic bedrooms for servants (chapter 7). The Dashwoods keep no carriage or horses, and therefore are entirely reliant on the kindness of the Middletons for society. Mrs. Dashwood, who despite her cousin’s kindness wishes to keep the relationship on an equal footing, rarely dines at Barton because she cannot afford to invite the Middletons to dine often.

500 pounds a year — the amount Mrs. Jennings considers would be adequate to the maintenance of Lucy Steel and Edward Ferrars, with an establishment in a cottage a little bigger than the Dashwoods’ at Barton, and “two maids and two men.” She notes that Lucy “knows better than any body how to make the most of every thing” and could do as much with five hundred “as any body else would with eight.” It is worth noting that in the event that the Ferrars family allowed Edward 500 a year, he would have 600 in reality due to his small personal fortune.

600 pounds — the annual income of Mrs. Norris, on her removal from the parsonage to the White house. As her own fortune must have been 7,000 pounds and the income not more than 350, and her husband brought no fortune to the marriage, this must represent a savings on her part of some 5,000 pounds over some 15 or 20 years of marriage, which is perhaps remarkable on an income of 1,000 a year, and with no necessity for saving.

800 pounds — the price of the chimney piece in one of the drawing rooms at Rosings. “This must indeed be an exceedingly grand creation, since most carved marble chimney pieces of the time did not usually cost more than L300.” (Le Faye, 193)

850-900 pounds — the annual income of Edward and Elinor Ferrars as they begin their lives together. Mrs. Ferrars’ gift of 10,000 will bring in 500, in addition to the living at Delaford worth 200 and capable of some little improvement, Edward’s 2,000 bringing in 100, and Elinor’s 1,000, 50. They regard this as “an income quite sufficient to their wants.” They are able to design their house with such elegant conveniences as a shrubbery and a carriage sweep, and as we are told they want “rather better pasturage for their cows,” we know that they must have some. Mrs. Jennings’s prophecy of two maids and two men is probable for them.

1,000 pounds — the fortune of each of the Bennet girls, which being in the four percents would bring in about 40 pounds per annum.

1,000 pounds — the private fortune of Mr. Wickham.

1,000 pounds — the annual sum on which (or with very little less than which) the Norrises began their married life together. As Mrs. Norris had 350 per annum and Mr. Norris scarcely any private fortune, the income from the parish must be about 650 pounds. As Sir Thomas Bertram describes that as “more than half” of the income which ought to have been Edmund’s, we can reasonably conclude that the income of Thornton Lacey can not have been more than 600 pounds.

1,800 - 2,000 pounds — the annual income Marianne pronounces “a competence.” She states that “a proper establishment of servants, a carriage, perhaps two, and hunters, cannot be supported on less.”

2,000 pounds — Edward Ferrars’s personal fortune, referred to as a trifling sum. The annual income from this fortune in the five percents would be 100 pounds.

2,000 pounds — the amount of Colonel Brandon’s annual income at Delaford now that the estate has been extricated from debt. He is described as “rich” by Mrs. Jennings speaking to the Dashwood girls, but we are told by her daughter Mrs. Palmer that Col. Brandon was regarded as an insufficiently rich match for herself. Considering that Lady Middleton married a baronet and Mrs. Palmer is married to a man who is running for Parliament, it seems she would have been correct, at least had Col. Brandon been interested. Delaford House has “five-sitting rooms on the ground floor” and can “make up fifteen beds.”

2,000 pounds — the amount of Mr. Bennet’s annual income. He pays no rent as his family home is inherited, and lives up to his income. He keeps a carriage but has only one pair of carriage horses, for the carriage is unusable when the horses are wanted on the farm, though they have at least one other horse for riding. Mr. Bennet has a coach, the Regency equivalent of a minivan—not particularly stylish, but effective at conveying the largest number of people for the least expense. It is also worth noting that Mrs. Bennet, as the daughter of an attorney, would not fall under the category of “gentleman’s daughter” which Elizabeth Bennet claims for herself. Mrs. Bennet has a housekeeper and a “very good cook” and her daughters do no work in the kitchen. They customarily dine on less than two courses, as we are told that “though [Mr. Bingley] had been invited only to a family dinner, [Mrs. Bennet] would take care to have two full courses.” (chapter 21) LeFaye states that Mr. Bennet would have expected to employ about eight maids and eight men about the house (123).

3,000 pounds — the sum Mr. Wickham received from Mr. Darcy in return for his claim to preferment to the living of Kimpton. This sum he seems to have expended, along with the interest of 1,000 pounds, in the course of about three years, while pretending to be studying the law.

3,000 pounds — the amount settled on Catherine Morland by her parents when she marries Henry Tilney.

4,000 pounds — the total amount of Mrs. Bennet’s fortune, left her by her father, an attorney in Meryton.

4,000 pounds — the annual income of Henry Crawford, coming from an estate in Norfolk.

5,000 pounds — the amount of Mr. Bingley’s annual income. He is described by Mrs. Bennet as “a single man of large fortune.” He arrives at Netherfield in a chaise and four, and keeps a housekeeper. Le Faye says he probably employed two dozen or more servants (123).

7,000 pounds — the total fortune of Lady Bertram, nee Miss Maria Ward. We may reasonably presume that it was also the fortune of Mrs. Norris and Mrs. Price.

10,000 pounds — the annual income of Mr. Darcy. LeFaye says he probably employed two dozen or more servants (123).

10,000 pounds — the total fortune “or thereabouts” of Augusta Elton, nee Augusta Hawkins, of Bath.

10,000 pounds — the total fortune which was intended for Anne Elliot, though her father can give her only a part of it at the time of her marriage due to his own extravagance.

10,000 pounds — the amount bestowed by Mrs. Ferrars on Edward, once she has forgiven him. We may presume the income to be around 500 a year.

10,000-15,000 pounds — the amount John Thorpe tells Gen. Tilney will be settled on Catherine Morland at her marriage, in addition to her being the heiress of Mr. Allen’s estate.

12,000 pounds — the annual income of Mr. Rushworth. LeFaye speculates that he kept two dozen or more servants (123).

20,000 pounds — the fortune of the Miss Bingleys, whose annual income would be 1,000 pounds if they are in the five percents. As the money is recently obtained, however, and five percents were difficult to acquire, their actual interest may be as low as 600.

20,000 pounds — the amount given to Miss Drummond by her father upon her marriage to General Tilney. The phrasing may imply that it was a gift, undoubtedly settled upon her at the time of her marriage, but not beforehand by, for example, the bride’s mother’s wedding settlement. The phrasing leaves open the possibility that this 20,000 was not the total of her “large fortune.”

25,000 pounds — the amount of Captain Wentworth’s prize money.

30,000 pounds — Georgiana Darcy’s fortune. As this sum would have been acquired by Mr. Wickham had he succeeded in marrying her, we must assume that it is settled strictly upon her rather than being left in trust for her brother’s administration permanently.

30,000 pounds — Emma Woodhouse’s fortune.

30,000 pounds — the total fortune of the Hon. Miss Morton, a lady of rank and fortune, and the bride selected for Edward Ferrars by his uncongenial mother. As this sum would bring in 1,500 a year in the five percents and his mother would bestow on him an additional thousand a year, presumably to be augmented at the time of her death, he would have had an income of 2,500 a year to begin life on (more than Mr. Bennet’s income) and an expectation of more, and would have been a reasonably rich man, much more so for a man without taste or habit for expense.

50,000 pounds — the total fortune of Sophia Grey, Willoughby’s rich bride. If it is in the five percents, it would bring them an income of 2,500 per year, or 500 more than Mr. Bennet has to provide for his whole family. Willoughby also has expectations of Allenham. Combe Magna, with an income of only 700 a year is not adequate to Willoughby’s style of life, which includes keeping hunters and pointers. It is worth noting, however, that Willoughby is in debt, and some portion of Miss Grey’s fortune is expected to go directly to alleviating that debt. Willoughby says that his fortune was “never large,” and he had “always been expensive, always in the habit of associating with people of better income.” He has been accumulating debt “every year since [his] coming of age.”

100,000 pounds — the amount of Mr. Bingley’s total fortune, inherited from his father, and intended to be used in part for the purchase of an estate.

100,000 pounds — the annual income of the Duke of Devonshire’s estates at Chatsworth in Derbyshire, an income augmented by mining interests in Derbyshire and rents from properties in London.

By Name

Bates — they live in two rooms and have one maid-of-all-work, Patty, “to whom they probably paid between five and ten guineas a year.” (LeFaye, 123)

Bennet — 2,000 pounds a year. “Might expect to employ eight female servants and eight menservants” (LeFaye, 123). They are clearly in possession of at least three horses—one matched pair for the carriage and one for riding, though it is not improbable that there would be another for a servant to ride in order to accompany Jane. We know that the carriage horses are also used on the farm and that there is only one pair. Mrs. Bennet is determined that when she has Mr. Bingley to dine she will have “two full courses” despite having invited him “only to a family dinner,” so we may conclude that they dine with relative simplicity on a day-to-day basis, perhaps showing Mr. Bennet’s economy.
La Faye notes that Mr. Bennet’s “indoor staff comprises [sic] Mrs. Hill the housekeeper, the cook, two maidservants, a butler and a footman who probably acts also as Mr Bennet’s valet. The outdoor staff comprises [sic] a coachman and, by definition, groom and stableboy to hep him tend both the family’s saddle-horses and the horses that work on the farm and sometimes draw the family coach.” She also comments that “There would be laborers to work with the livestock and in the fields and woods, and also a gamekeeper, as Mr Bennet has space for pheasant coverts on his land.” (181-182)

Bertram, Sir Thomas — possessed of a large income and a fine house, the Bertrams are very wealthy. The park, that is, pleasure grounds unused for agriculture, is five miles in circumference. We know that he had a steward, a bailiff, a full-time carpenter, coachman, postillions, groom, a butler, footmen, housekeeper, a ladies’ maid for Lady Bertram and another for the two daughters, though Fanny is merely assisted by the upper housemaid. La Faye says that to support this lifestyle Sir Thomas’s income “would have to be about L10,000 a year.” (234)

Bingley — Mr. Bingley has an income of about 5,000 pounds on a property of nearly 100,000 pounds left him by his father. He intends to purchase an estate with some of this money. It should be noted that Mr. Bingley’s property is apparently in the five percents, and land generally brought in only about 2%, so it is unlikely that he would want to purchase a very large estate, as that would severely diminish his income by tying up all his capital. He comes down from London in a chaise and four to see Netherfield. This was probably his own chaise (we learn in chapter 7 that Bingley has a chaise) with four rented horses, as post-horses were the fastest way to travel and many people staying in London did not bring their own horses to the city with them.

Churchill, Frank — The presumed heir of his aunt and uncle Churchill, whose name he has adopted, Frank Churchill has no money or profession of his own, but provided that he obeys his aunt seems to have a liberal allowance. His lack of independence presents serious difficulties to his marital plans.

Cole — the Coles are an interesting family, rising from the merchant class to gentility. Although Mr. Cole’s origin is in trade, they are now rich enough to live among the gentry. They keep a carriage and horses as well as a donkey for Mrs. Cole to ride and have made additions to bring their house to the level of gentility. Further, they have bought a grand piano in hopes of their daughters’ learning to play some day, but doubtless also to ensure that the young ladies of the neighborhood have the opportunity to play when they are invited to dinner or tea, and to provide the opportunity of dancing.

DeBourgh, Lady Catherine — She is described as a wealthy woman, though we are never given the extent of her fortune. Her park is evidently smaller than Pemberley, for we encounter Col. Fitzwilliam on a return from a walking tour of its perimeter at no very advanced hour. Mr. Collins tells us that she has several carriages, and when she calls on Elizabeth at Longbourn she arrives in a chaise and four, with a liveried servant and carriage. (The horses are post, which was undoubtedly the most expeditious way to travel.)

Elliot, Anne — she is supposed to have a share of ten thousand pounds (presumably her mother’s) divided among the three Elliot girls, but her father’s bad financial management means he cannot give it to her at the time of her marriage. Since this would mean about three thousand pounds, the income would be in the 100-150 pounds a year range, enough to keep her in genteel poverty should all her relatives die, but not enough to marry on. It is further evidence of Sir Walter’s fiscal irresponsibility that Anne Elliot’s inheritance is equal to Catherine Moreland’s; he really ought to have been setting aside money for a marriage portion for his daughters instead of getting into debt.

Elliot — Mr. Elliot keeps a servant (ordinarily in livery, though he is in mourning when they encounter him at Lyme) and drives a curricle with two horses, and the Elliot arms on the side. He is wealthy due to his first marriage to a low-born but rich woman.

Elliot — Sir Walter Elliot keeps a chaise and four horses, lives at Kellynch-hall, and is in the habit of going to London “for a few weeks annual enjoyment of the great world.” He keeps two pairs of horses for the chaise but possibly no more, as nobody in the household seems to ride. Lady Russell marks out a plan of retrenchment for his debts that will clear him in seven years, which is perhaps not too bad considering that it would allow him to keep one pair of horses and that every acre of his land is mortgaged, but Sir Walter considers this plan too severe: “Journeys, London, servants, horses, table,—contractions and restriction every where. To live no longer with the decencies even of a private gentleman!” When the Elliots remove to Bath they give up their four horses entirely, not an uncommon habit for persons in town, who often kept a carriage and hired horses, due to the inconvenience and expense of keeping them, which was heightened by the restriction of space in a town. In Bath they take an elegant house in the very elegant Camden-street, which had a view of the river. Elizabeth is pained by the “difference of style” and “reduction of servants, which a dinner must betray,” but they still have a butler and foot-boy to usher in Mr. Elliot in Vol. 2 Chapter 3. Elizabeth feels that their lowered style of living will not be noticeable in the evening party to which she invites the Musgroves instead of a dinner.

Elton — Mr. Elton has the living of Highbury and some private income of his own. When he marries Mrs. Elton he acquires her fortune of close to 10,000 pounds. Mr. Elton is clearly identified as a gentleman and mixes in the genteel society of the neighborhood easily, both as being an eligible bachelor and as an educated man in a genteel profession. The new Mrs. Elton rapidly assumes a position not only of participation but of leadership in the local gentility, to which she is perhaps entitled by her marriage (married women always had higher standing than single ones) and her money, but not by her education, accomplishments, or elegance, let alone her husband’s status in life. Emma is, of course, beside herself.

Ferrars — Edward and Elinor Ferrars begin their life together on some 850-900 pounds per annum, the combined results of the income of his rectory at Delaford, their own private fortunes, and Mrs. Ferrars’ gift of 10,000. They regard this as “an income quite sufficient to their wants.” They are able to design their house with such elegant conveniences as a shrubbery and a carriage sweep, and as we are told they want “rather better pasturage for their cows,” we know that they have some. Mrs. Jennings’s prophecy of two maids and two men is probable for them. We may also note that, although Elinor and Edward are too reasonable to exceed their income in expectation of such an event, or even to omit saving something, it is probable that some inheritance will be Edward’s when Mrs. Ferrars dies. Her own considerable income must be divided in some way among her three children when that event takes place, and though there is no reason so suppose that she will overcome in death that partiality which she made no effort to check during her lifetime, it seems unlikely that she would entirely ignore Edward’s claims. Depending on the time of her death, however, whatever she chooses to give to Edward’s family might be secured to a grandchild of hers rather than to her son.

Hurst — Mrs. Hurst had 20,000 pounds as her fortune. We are told, when the Hursts visit Bingley, that they “have no horses” to their carriage. They presumably hired post horses, a common practice when traveling to the country, as it yielded a faster pace. They have a house in London in Grosvenor-street, a fashionable area, but prefer to reside with Mr. Bingley, and at his expense.

Knightley, Mr. George — The chief landowner of the Highbury area and owner of Donwell Abbey, Mr. Knightley is land rich but somewhat cash poor. He owns a carriage but keeps no horses for it, though he does keep a horse to ride. LeFaye estimates his income at 4,000 pounds a year. Emma’s dowry will add an infusion of fresh cash to his landed estate and makes them well suited to each other financially as well as in other ways.

Knightley, Mr. John — a barrister in London, he is doing well enough to have a home in the new and fashionable Brunswick Square. Homes there often cost between 3,000 and 5,000 pounds to build, and were often supplied with such luxuries as piped water and flushing water closets.

Martin — Robert Martin is the man of the house in an interesting household; he is a tenant farmer, sturdy, hard-working, and comfortably off, but socially in a class which would never mix with Emma’s. His appropriate relationship with Harriet points up the social inequality between Harriet and Emma. Mr. Martin’s sisters have attended a local school, and he himself is diligent in reading agricultural reports. The family appears to be on the rise despite the early death of Robert Martin’s father, and their chief produce appears to be wool. They have two parlors (which do not aspire to the dignity of drawing rooms), several maidservants and no manservant, but are thinking of hiring a boy. There are eight cows, an orchard, poultry, and a summerhouse. In short, they are reasonably well educated, even if their education tends somewhat to the practical, comfortably off, and perhaps bordering on gentility. Mr. Knightley calls Robert Martin a gentleman-farmer. The family would be a good model for writing about a not-quite-genteel family anywhere in the countryside.

Moreland, Catherine - Catherine is given 3,000 pounds on her marriage to Henry Tilney. The imagined inheritance which Thorpe invests in Catherine is a much larger number, however. He says that her father will give her ten or fifteen thousand pounds, and that Mr. Allen’s entire estate will be left to her.

Moreland, James — On his engagement he is promised a living with an income of 400 pounds per annum, and an inheritance worth the same amount, which would give him an annual income after his father’s death of 800 pounds. Isabella, however, imagines herself “with a carriage at her command, a new name on her tickets, and a brilliant exhibition of hoop rings on her finger.” Even if James were finished with his studies and able to begin earning that money immediately, 400 a year would not be enough to keep a carriage, that threshold generally being about 500. Unless they had few children it is perhaps unlikely that they would be able to keep a carriage even after James comes into his inheritance. There is every indication that James will have no other source of income or inheritance, so Isabella is destined to disappointment.

Musgrove, Charles and Mary — This couple, heir to the Musgrove estate, live in Uppercross Cottage, a farm-house made over to be more genteel and attractive. They have no closed carriage, though Charles keeps a curricle, and they always wish Charles’ father would give them more money. They live comfortably enough, but we are told that the furniture is getting shabby with age and abuse from the children, indicating that they don’t have the money to re-furnish the rooms at the usual times. When they return from Lyme after Louisa’s fall, they hire a chaise and four horses.

Musgrove, Mr. and Mrs. — The owners of Uppercross and parents of a large family. They live in an easy and comfortable style, and have three grown children, Charles, Henrietta, and Louisa. The latter two were educated at a school and now are well-dressed society favorites. They keep one carriage, the family-sized coach, and Mary complains that they are squashed when they take her to evening parties. When they travel to Bath they do so with four horses, probably hired.

Price — We may reasonably conclude that the fortune of all three girls was equal to that of Maria at 7,000 pounds, producing an annual income (if in the five percents) of 350 pounds. Mr. Price is on the disabled list and is probably retired at half-pay. I was unable to discover what that would be but it seems that the half-pay of a retired militia lieutenant (not Marines, but it seems it would be ballpark) was 2 s. 6 d. per day, yielding approximately 100 pounds per annum, and leaving the family with a total income of 450 pounds per year, if they have invested rather than spent Mrs. Price’s capital. This is less than the Dashwoods’ income, and as there are nine children instead of three, a rented house which we may assume is not on as easy terms as Barton Cottage, and a husband fond of “company and good liquor,” perhaps we ought not be surprised at their having only one candle of an evening, and only two maids (Rebecca and Sally).

Rushworth, Mr. James — he has Southerton Court and 12,000 pounds a year, but very little else to recommend him.

Tilney, General — we are not told what his fortune is, but it must be large. He travels in a chaise and four, owns a large and well-tended abbey, and has rights of preferment to at least one local parish. His son has his own curricle as well as the living at Woodston. His wife, a former Miss Drummond, brought 20,000 pounds to the marriage, which does not seem to be regarded as an unreasonable sum in comparison to his fortune.

Tilney, Henry — the amount of his fortune is never named, but we are told that he holds the parish at Woodston, and that “of a very considerable fortune, [he] was, by marriage settlements, eventually secure; his present income was an income of independence and comfort.” We may therefore conclude that, as he seems fonder of drawing, walking and conversation than of hunting, gambling and wine, he has quite enough to marry a portionless girl without the necessity of any retrenchment.

Wentworth, Capt. Frederick — though he inherits no fortune, Capt. Wentworth has amassed 25,000 pounds in prize money. LeFaye notes that he would be demobilized on half-pay and, as he has been promoted to post-captain, is sure of rising to the rank of admiral by seniority (287).

Willoughby, John — owner of Combe Magna, an estate that brings in around 700 pounds a year. He has expensive habits and must have fairly substantial debts.

Woodhouse, Emma — “the heiress of thirty thousand pounds.” Her infusion of cash makes her the perfect match, in a prudential light, for Mr. Knightley, who is the owner of the large estate of Donwell Abbey, but cash-poor.

Woodhouse, Mr. Henry — he lives on an income that LeFaye estimates as about 3,000 pounds in the small village of Highbury, which is apparently reasonably close to London (enough for a young horseman to make it there and back in one day, as Mr. Frank Churchill does). He keeps a carriage and a comfortable establishment, including cook (Serle), butler, maids, James the coachman and his assistants. As they live very quietly due to Mr. Woodhouse’s ‘valetudinarian' habits, a large establishment is unnecessary to substantial comfort.

A special note on carriages, drawn from LeFaye 58-61

The coach was the largest and most expensive carriage. It could take up to six people inside, and was thus a family vehicle. It is the carriage owned by the Bennets, Bertrams and Musgroves, who have coachmen to drive it. (59)

The chaise was lighter than the coach and carried three people, with a postilion riding the nearside horse. (59)

A chariot has the same body as a coach but was driven by a coachman from a box-seat atop the body. It is a fashionable vehicle owned by the John Dashwoods and the dowager Mrs. Rushworth. (59)

A landau was as large as a coach, but had a leather hood which opened in two halves from the centre. It was German, invented in 1800. (59)

The laundaulette was smaller, with the body of a chariot and a single hood that collapsed from front to back. Anne Elliot acquires one of these after her marriage to Captain Wentworth. (59)

The barouche had a single hood, and could carry four people inside and two on the box. It did not arrive in England until 1800. Henry Crawford drives a barouche. (59) It is also the carriage employed by Lady Dalrymple in Bath in Persuasion.

The barouche-landau was invented in 1804 as a combination of the barouche and landau. One is owned by Mrs. Elton’s rich brother-in-law Mr. Suckling, and she boasts of it constantly and makes plans for its use in expeditions. (59) The Princess of Wales also owned a barouche-landau. (61)

Smaller, open carriages follow. These would all be driven by the owner.

A two-seater phaeton or Highflier had a small body perched high above four large wheels and was drawn by two or more horses. It was sporting, showed off a young man’s skill in driving, and was dangerous. (59)

The lower-slung curricle was less dangerous but very smart. It had two wheels and was pulled by two horses. It is owned by Willoughby, Darcy, Henry Tilney, and Rushworth. (59-60)

The gig is a less expensive version of the curricle, with two wheels and one horse. It is owned by James Morland and John Thorpe. (60)

A pony-phaeton was a small, low-slung and consequently safer version of the phaeton or Highflyer. Mrs. Gardiner recommends one to Elizabeth after her marriage to Darcy. (60)

A gig, a whiskey (a small, lightly built gig that “whisked” along) or a pony-phaeton were considered suitable equipages for women. They could also drive a donkey cart as Mrs. Austen did. (60)

Further notes on travel:

Traveling post was considered more genteel (and safer for a lady) than traveling by stage coach. The post-chaises were owned by innkeepers and rented out to travelers. They were “good carriages with four wheels,” closed, and could hold “three persons in the back with ease.” It was an expensive way to travel, at a rate of at least one shilling per horse per mile, plus tips to postboys and and inn servants along the way. (LeFaye 58)

Notes on horses and transportation, from Pool:

As of 1820, a hunter or carriage horse would cost about 100 pounds, and a hack 25-40. Renting horses (“jobbing” was common), particularly in London, and in the 1880s it cost about 85 pounds per year. A donkey, the choice of the poor or those affecting to be so (viz Mrs. Elliot on her country outing) would cost from 5 shillings up to 3 pounds. (143)

A Jane Austen Price List

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